How Do Bees Build Their Hive?

Imagine the bustling life of bees in a world that seems all too different from our own. With their incredible unity and sense of purpose, these small but extraordinary creatures work tirelessly to construct one of nature’s marvels: the beehive. But have you ever wondered just how they do it? In this article, you’ll discover the fascinating secrets behind the construction of a bee’s hive, from the meticulous planning to the remarkable teamwork that brings their humble abode to life. Brace yourself for a journey into the mesmerizing world of honeybees and their architectural prowess.

How Do Bees Build Their Hive?

Materials Used in Hive Construction


Beeswax is a crucial material used by bees in constructing their hives. It is produced by worker bees through special glands on their abdomens. This wax starts as small flakes that the bees carefully shape and mold into the structures that make up the hive. Beeswax is known for its durability and malleability, making it an excellent choice for building sturdy and functional comb cells.


Another important material used in hive construction is propolis. Bees create propolis by collecting resin from tree buds and mixing it with beeswax, enzymes, and pollen. This sticky substance acts as a sealant, reinforcing the hive’s structure and protecting it against drafts and potential intruders. Propolis also has antimicrobial properties, helping to keep the hive clean and disease-free.


While pollen is primarily used as a source of nutrition for honeybees, it also plays a role in hive construction. Worker bees collect pollen from flowers and bring it back to the hive, where it is stored in cells as food for the brood. However, pollen particles can sometimes stick to the bees’ bodies or legs, inadvertently becoming building materials as they are carried into the hive.

Royal Jelly

Royal jelly is a special substance produced by worker bees to feed the larvae that will become queen bees. While its main purpose is not directly related to hive construction, royal jelly indirectly contributes to the overall strength and vitality of the hive. By nurturing the development of queens, worker bees ensure the continuity and health of the colony.

The Role of Worker Bees

Collecting Building Materials

Worker bees have the essential task of gathering the necessary materials for hive construction – beeswax, propolis, and pollen. They venture out of the hive, visiting flowers and tree buds to collect nectar, pollen, and resin. Through their diligent foraging, worker bees ensure a constant supply of building materials for the hive.

Building Comb Cells

Once the building materials are brought back to the hive, worker bees start constructing comb cells. These hexagonal structures are carefully shaped using beeswax. Worker bees have a remarkable ability to measure and create cells of uniform size, ensuring efficient use of space within the hive.

Secreting and Spreading Wax

Worker bees play a crucial role in producing beeswax. Special glands on their abdomens secrete small flakes of wax, which the bees collect and manipulate using their mandibles. The bees then position themselves to shape the wax and attach it to the comb structure. The secretion and spreading of wax require coordination and precise movements within the colony.

Propolis Application

Worker bees are responsible for applying propolis throughout the hive. They use their mandibles to scrape and gather resin from tree buds, mixing it with wax, pollen, and enzymes to create this sticky substance. Bees strategically apply propolis to fill gaps, strengthen weak areas, and ensure the hive’s structural integrity. The collective effort of worker bees in applying propolis contributes to an airtight and secure hive.

Phases of Hive Construction

Nest Making

The first phase of hive construction is nest making. To create a solid foundation, bees must carefully choose a suitable location for their hive. They prefer areas that offer protection from extreme weather conditions and potential predators. Once a suitable location is found, the bees begin by forming wax scales within their bodies. These scales are then extruded, shaped, and used to build vertical walls, creating a protected space for the colony.

Comb Building

Once the basic nest structure is established, bees move on to comb building. This phase involves the creation of the honeycomb structure within the hive. Bees start by creating comb templates, which serve as a guide for building the cells. They meticulously measure and shape the cells, ensuring consistent depth and size. The hexagonal shape of the cells maximizes storage space and provides structural stability.

Cell Construction

The final phase of hive construction is cell construction. Cells are where bees store honey, pollen, and brood. Worker bees divide the comb into individual cells by creating walls that separate each cell from the others. To prepare the target area for construction, bees soften the wax with water or saliva. They then skillfully manipulate the wax, shaping it into robust cell walls. Once the cells are constructed, worker bees cap them with wax to protect the developing larvae inside.

Nest Making – Creating the Foundation

Choosing a Suitable Location

The choice of a suitable location for the hive is crucial during nest making. Bees prefer locations that provide protection from harsh weather conditions, such as wind, rain, and extreme temperatures. They also look for a location that minimizes the risk of intrusion by predators and other potential threats. Common choices include tree hollows, rock crevices, or man-made structures specifically designed for beekeeping.

Forming Wax Scales

To begin nest making, worker bees produce wax scales within their bodies. Bees have specialized glands on their abdomens that secrete these wax scales. The bees extrude these scales, shape them with their mandibles, and use them to build the initial structure of the hive.

Building Vertical Walls

Using the wax scales they have created, worker bees build vertical walls within the chosen location. Bees chew and manipulate the wax to create sturdy walls that provide a secure base for the rest of the hive construction. By building these walls vertically, they ensure a suitable area for comb building and later stages of nest development.

Constructing a Protective Entrance

Another important aspect of nest making is the construction of a protective entrance. Bees carefully shape the entrance to have a narrow opening that can be easily defended from intruders. This narrow entrance serves as a deterrent to potential predators, while still allowing for efficient airflow and communication with other bees.

Comb Building – Establishing the Honeycomb Structure

Comb Template Creation

During the comb building phase, bees create comb templates. These templates act as a guide for building cells and maintaining uniformity within the comb structure. Bees measure and shape the comb cells precisely, starting from the initial comb template.

Cell Depth and Size

Consistent cell depth and size are essential for efficient use of space within the hive and optimal storage of honey, pollen, and brood. Worker bees measure and shape the cells with remarkable precision, ensuring that each cell is the same depth and size as the others. This consistency allows for uniform organization of the hive and maximizes storage capacity.

Hexagonal Cell Shape

The shape of the comb cells is another remarkable feature of honeybee hive construction. Bees naturally construct cells in a hexagonal shape, which provides both strength and efficiency. The hexagonal shape minimizes the amount of wax required while maximizing storage space. It is a testament to the bees’ innate ability to optimize resource utilization and structural integrity.

Comb Attachment and Reinforcement

To ensure the stability and strength of the comb structure, bees utilize various methods to attach and reinforce the comb. Bees secrete wax and use it to attach the comb cells to the vertical walls of the hive. They also employ interweaving techniques between adjacent cells, creating a solid and interconnected network. These attachment and reinforcement methods contribute to the overall robustness of the hive.

Cell Construction – Developing Individual Cells

Cell Division

Once the honeycomb structure is in place, bees begin the process of cell construction. Part of this process involves dividing the comb into individual cells. Worker bees create walls that separate each cell from the others, allowing for the storage of honey, pollen, and brood.

Softening the Target Area

Before constructing each cell, bees soften the target area within the comb. They do this by adding small droplets of water or saliva. The moisture softens the wax, making it more pliable and easier to manipulate. This step ensures that the wax can be shaped into sturdy cell walls.

Constructing Cell Walls

Worker bees skillfully mold the softened wax into cell walls. Using their mandibles and legs, they shape and sculpt the wax, ensuring the walls are strong and capable of supporting the weight of honey, pollen, and developing larvae. The construction of each cell requires precision and careful attention to detail.

Cell Capping

Once a cell is complete and the brood or honey is stored inside, it is capped with wax. Capping serves as a protective barrier for the contents of the cell. For brood cells, the wax cap allows the larvae to develop in a controlled environment, ensuring their safety and proper growth. In the case of honey storage cells, capping prevents moisture and contaminants from entering the honey, preserving its quality.

The Importance of Hive Design

Storage and Brood Space

An essential aspect of hive design is providing sufficient storage space for honey, pollen, and brood. The comb cells serve as storage units, and the overall design of the hive must accommodate the colony’s needs. Adequate storage space ensures the bees have enough food to survive periods of scarcity and provides suitable conditions for raising brood.

Temperature and Ventilation Control

Hive design also plays a crucial role in temperature and ventilation control. Bees must maintain a consistent temperature within the hive, as it directly affects brood development and overall colony health. The design of the hive allows for efficient regulation of temperature through insulation and ventilation mechanisms, such as small entrance openings and specific airflow patterns.

Robustness and Structure Stability

A well-designed hive is structurally stable and robust. It can withstand the weight of stored honey, the movement of bees, and potential environmental challenges. The design ensures that the hive remains intact and functional, providing a secure home for the colony. Bees achieve this through careful construction methods and the use of strong materials like beeswax and propolis.

Hive Defense Mechanisms

Hive design incorporates various defense mechanisms to protect the colony from pests and intruders. Narrow entrances, propolis application, and strategic placement of comb cells help deter predators and potential threats. The overall design of the hive ensures the safety and security of the bee colony.

Adaptations and Innovations in Hive Construction

Hive Design Variations

While bees have a basic blueprint for hive construction, different species and subspecies of bees may exhibit slight variations in their hive designs. These variations arise due to adaptations to specific environmental conditions and the availability of resources. Some bees may construct multiple combs to create larger hive structures, while others may build smaller, more compact hives.

Use of Propolis as Antimicrobial

Bees have an innate understanding of the antimicrobial properties of propolis. They strategically apply propolis throughout the hive to create a hygienic environment and protect against disease. This innovative use of propolis showcases the bees’ ability to utilize natural resources for the benefit of the entire colony.

Comb Attachment Methods

Bees have developed various techniques for comb attachment. They employ interweaving, overlapping, and the use of silk-like threads to strengthen the attachment points between comb cells and hive walls. These innovative methods ensure the structural stability and integrity of the comb, allowing the hive to withstand external forces and pressures.

Defense Mechanisms Against Pests

Hive construction also incorporates defense mechanisms against pests, such as ants and wax moths. Bees create narrow entrances that make it difficult for pests to gain access to the hive. They also use propolis to seal off potential entry points and deter pests from invading. These adaptations demonstrate the bees’ ability to adapt and innovate in response to threats to their colony.

Hive Construction Challenges

Swarm and Nest Relocation

Bees face challenges related to swarm and nest relocation during hive construction. When a colony becomes overcrowded, a portion of the bees, along with the queen, leave the original hive in a swarm. The swarm seeks a new location to establish a hive, requiring the bees to overcome the challenge of finding a suitable site and starting the construction process from scratch.

Hive Health Issues

Hive construction can be hindered by various health issues that affect the colony. Diseases, parasites, and environmental factors can weaken bees and disrupt their construction efforts. Pests like Varroa mites and diseases like foulbrood can significantly impact hive health, making ongoing monitoring and maintenance crucial for successful hive construction.

Extreme Weather Conditions

Extreme weather conditions can pose challenges to hive construction. Sweltering heat, freezing temperatures, heavy rain, and strong winds can all impact the bees’ ability to construct and maintain their hive. Bees have evolved to adapt to these conditions, but severe weather events can still hinder their construction progress.

Predators and Hive Burglars

Hive construction can also face challenges from predators and hive burglars. Animals like bears, skunks, and raccoons may target beehives, attempting to steal honey or feed on the bees themselves. Protecting the hive from these predators requires robust hive design and additional defense mechanisms such as electric fencing or hive stands.

Human Interactions and Apiary Management

Human Assistance in Hive Construction

Humans play an important role in hive construction by providing artificial beehives and appropriate infrastructure for bees to thrive. Beekeepers create hive boxes, frames, and foundation sheets that mimic the natural structures in which bees build their hives. These artificial hives provide the bees with a familiar environment, facilitating their construction activities.

Beekeeping Practices and Hive Maintenance

Beekeepers actively manage their apiaries to ensure the health and productivity of the colonies. They monitor the construction progress, inspect the hive for any signs of disease or parasites, and provide necessary interventions when required. Regular hive maintenance, including frame rotation and comb replacement, promotes optimal hive construction and colony longevity.

Hive Inspection and Harvesting Honey

Regular hive inspections allow beekeepers to assess the progress of hive construction and the health of the colony. During inspections, beekeepers may remove excess honey, ensuring ample space for ongoing building activities. The harvested honey is a valuable reward for both the bees and the beekeeper.

Environmental Considerations

Human interactions with bees and their hives should always take into account environmental considerations. Beekeepers should provide a supportive environment for honeybees, avoiding the use of pesticides and ensuring adequate forage availability. Sensitivity towards the natural habitats and ecosystems in which bees thrive contributes to sustainable hive construction practices.